College Reading Website for Faculty
Purpose of the website
The purpose of the website is to provide faculty with information about college reading and strategies for embedding reading into the curriculum in a simple manner. Recognizing that the main focus of instruction is content-specific knowledge and skills, this module is designed to present ideas for creating assignments/assessments in ways that encourage students to complete course reading in an effective manner. Also, brief instructional modules which allow for some practice are embedded in the website. These links can be used by faculty who would like more information about specific reading strategies and by students who are interested in obtaining information and practice on reading skills. Additional reading-related links are provided at the end of the website.
Benefits to faculty and students
Faculty may be able to discuss class concepts more efficiently since students will spend time outside of class engaging in independent exposure to material. Students will have the opportunity to come to class more prepared to listen and participate in lectures and ask more focused questions. Students will benefit by not only increasing their acquisition of course concepts, but they will also strengthen their general reading skills.
The Ultimate Goal!
The goal is to facilitate the development of independent, flexible readers who have some capacity for learning on their own. Although mastering course content is certainly important, if students do not graduate with the ability to read and learn on their own, they will have difficulty functioning optimally in the work world.
- Clicking on bold blue headings will bring viewers to general sections within the website.
- Clicking on embedded links will place viewers in instructional modules.
- Viewers may choose to go through the entire website or select only areas that are of interest to them.
- Why do we need to be concerned about reading in college? Don’t all college students know how to read?
- My class is lecture-based. There is no required text, so why would I want to read any further?
- If I require a textbook for my course doesn’t that fulfill my commitment to engaging students in the reading process?
- One Reading Theory: The Interactive Model
- What are some problems readers may experience?
- What should you expect from an effective college level reader?
- What are basic reading proficiencies college readers should possess?
- What are the reading demands in various disciplines?
- Are the materials I have selected student friendly?
- How is reading online different from reading hard copy materials? What can I do to help my students read online materials for my course?
- How can I implement the reading process in my own discipline?
- How can I design assignments to incorporate independent reading?
- How can I design assessments which require some independent reading?
- What should I do if I recognize that a student is having difficulty handing reading assignments in my course?
- Additional Reading-Related Links
Why do we need to be concerned about reading in college? Don’t all college students know how to read?
Community Colleges students are a very diverse group, with a wide range of reading levels. Many students are reading at the college level but need instruction, practice, and feedback so skills will be maintained and continue to develop. Also, although most high school students receive instruction in writing, they often do not receive instruction in, “reading to learn.” Many students may not have had experience reading lengthy, complex, or inferential text at the secondary level; therefore, using their reading skills in a variety of courses is the crucial to skill enhancement.
Another reason it is beneficial to help students develop their reading skills is that good readers have a better chance of becoming good writers. Good readers tend to have more developed vocabularies and are aware of appropriate writing conventions. They see good models of writing on a more regular basis. So improving reading skills will ultimately improve writing skills.
The global economy provides another compelling reason to facilitate the development of students’ basic skills. Our students are competing with motivated international students who are required to complete rigorous academic programs. Unless we make a systemic effort to require students to practice and build their general skills they may not be competent enough to compete in the job market with their international counterparts.
Some students are not reading at the college level and need developmental courses to build their skills so that they are able to handle college reading demands. Developmental courses provide direct instruction, practice, and feedback in the areas of comprehension both literal and inferential, vocabulary development, critical reading, and learning strategies application.
For additional information about the need to increase students’ reading skills click on the following links:
- Many College Students Graduate with Low Proficiency in Math and Reading, Study Finds
- Study Finds Big Gaps in College Student’s Literacy
My class is lecture-based. There is no required text, so why would I want to read any further?
If you require students to read paper copy, online articles, essays, or other readings, there are ways to help them read these materials more effectively. Also, there are methods for designing assignments and assessments that help to motivate students to complete their reading. If you don’t include any reading, you may want to consider adding some because good readers have more potential to become better writers and both reading and writing are skills students will certainly need in college and beyond.
If I require a textbook for my course doesn’t that fulfill my commitment to engaging students in the reading process?
Unfortunately the answer to that question, as many experienced instructors know, is no. First of all many students who do not like to read are adept at identifying ways to circumvent assigned reading. For example, if “Cliff Notes” like materials are available, they will often locate them. Secondly, instructors may inadvertently, or out of frustration, create learning environments which may only have students use their text as an occasional reference tool. If students recognize early on that they do not need to do any independent outside reading to pass the class, they often will not read.
One Reading Theory: The Interactive Model
Although there are many reading theories, the Interactive Theory succinctly embodies a clear concept of what should happen when students engage in the process of “reading to learn.” The process of “reading to learn” is represented by the following:
- Context — represents the reason for reading, the provided directions, if any, and the setting.
- Reader — represents the prior knowledge, interests/attitudes, and reading skills/processes the reader brings to the task.
- The Text — represents the overall structure of text (article, textbook, case study), readability of the material, and the subject i.e. physics or an article about the Detroit Lions.
When all three factors are “in sync,” learning occurs. (See the visual below.)
The following represents a scenario demonstrating a positive reading/learning experience:
A student is enrolled in an introductory college biology course. She had high school biology and is familiar with many concepts from the discipline and enjoys the subject. The student plans on enrolling in the nursing program. The text is appropriate for a beginning college biology course and many text aids are present to help her to see the overall structure of the chapter. Since she has had previous exposure to biology books, she is familiar with the structure. The purpose of the assignment is to become familiar with process of mitosis, cell division. The specific goals are to be able to define the process, identify the steps in the process and discuss it in relation to plant and animal cells. She already has knowledge about mitosis and has a specific purpose for reading. She reads the material at a desk in her room in the early evening when she is still alert. She is able to comprehend when she reads, identifies relevant information, and creates a record for future reference. She also identified questions she wants to ask in class.
The following link provides additional theoretical information about reading.
What are some problems readers may experience?
Ineffective college readers often struggle with the process of reading. They may not enjoy reading because it is sometimes a frustrating, unproductive process. The following is a list of problems that some college readers may experience:
- They may read without a specific purpose; therefore, they retain little. (Link to reading process, Before Step)
- They may lack knowledge of text structure, which impedes comprehension. (Link to comprehension.)
- They may be auditory readers who read word by word. (Link to speed.)
- They may have difficulty identifying main ideas and/or relevant details. (Link to comprehension)
- They may have difficulty with inferential reading. (Link to comprehension)
- They may have limited vocabularies which causes fluency problems and a reduction in comprehension. (Link to vocabulary.)
- They may have difficulty following extended discussions of a concept becoming lost in the details. (Link comprehension.)
- They may have problems concentrating when reading (Link to concentration) and have difficulty monitoring or managing their learning. (Link to metacognition.)
- They may lack a systematic method of processing text (Link to reading process) and/or read all text in the same manner regardless of changes in structure or purpose. (Links to and reading demands in disciplines)
- They may difficulty learning and integrating content-specific terminology.(Link to technical terminology)
- They may have problems seeing how new concepts relate to former concepts, everything looks like another new idea. (Link comprehension)
- They may not know how to vary strategies for online reading.(Link to reading online)
What should you expect from an effective college level reader?
An effective college reader is actively involved in the process of making meaning from text. They have control of the reading process. The reader focuses his energies on meeting the demands of the task and works to create connections between the text and his own knowledge, organizing information so that retention increases. Effective readers also use metacognitive skills to monitor the reading/thinking processes and utilize interventions and/or make necessary modifications so that learning will occur.
What are basic reading proficiencies college readers should possess?
One comprehends when one makes meaning from text. If students are not internally processing information and making meaning when they read, they are not reading. Comprehension can be literal, selecting and understanding stated salient information, main ideas and details. The ability to do this accurately and within a reasonable time frame is paramount to success in many introductory survey courses that present numerous course concepts. Inferential comprehension encompasses identifying implied main ideas, making accurate inferences , understanding allusions, and detecting bias. Inferential reading is usually the goal in most college classes. Higher level reading and thinking is required in most professions; therefore, college curricula provide learning experiences that facilitate and use inferential reading.
Additionally, effective readers are aware of and use organizational patterns to facilitate their comprehension and retention of the material. They create predictive mental questions, based upon an understanding of writing conventions and prior knowledge to identify salient information before reading. As they read, they note important information and create mental schemas that help to process information effectively.
Good readers are able to recognize and follow extended discussions on a topic. They read definitions, if given, and then look beyond definitions for further explanation. They realize that this information is critical to fully grasping a concept. They are able to recognize when a concept is new or just an extension of a former concept. Poor readers, on the other hand, often skip extended discussions since they are not in bold print and require sustained concentration. They tend to see everything as new and therefore have trouble relating concepts and retaining information.
Vocabulary development is inextricably linked to reading comprehension. To function reasonably well, college readers should have mastered vocabulary at approximately the 10th grade level. That means they should not only be able to read the words, but that they use them in their spoken and written communication as well. If students are required to read throughout their academic experience and interact with professors, they will continue to build their vocabulary. College readers should also have the skills to independently expand their general vocabulary, so knowledge of roots, prefixes and context clues is very important. Additionally, students should have developed a system which allows them to learn words independently.
Mastering technical vocabulary is critical to understanding course concepts. Usually textbooks and instructors provide direct definitions and extended discussion regarding content-specific terminology. College readers, with instruction, are generally able to use the explanations, comprehend the text, and hopefully, master the terminology. Sometimes students can benefit from learning to how to link terminology to understand concepts and retain information.
Ultimately, the goal should be to increase students’ vocabularies in all domains: listening, reading, speaking and writing. The more developed students’ vocabularies become, the more confident they will feel communicating in a broad range of environments.
College readers should have the ability to read at a variety of rates, depending on a number of factors. Effective college readers know when to slow down and how to make effective notes when processing text. They also have the ability to speed up when the material is easy or the purpose is to skim or scan. They are not auditory readers; they do not habitually regress, and they can retain some of the material they read even at relatively fast rates. Efficient readers read for concepts, not individual words. They read in phrases or chunks stopping less often than inefficient readers.
What is considered a good rate? The answer to that question depends on the structure of the material, the purpose of the reading and the reader’s background knowledge. The average college student reads approximately 250 words per minute. This is a relatively slow rate if one is reading for leisure. A rate of 350 to 450 or higher would be better if one is reading for pleasure and the material is not too dense. However, if one is study reading, reading expository text and taking notes, a rate of 200 wpm is reasonable and it could even slower if the material is math or math-based.
There are a number of ways to increase one’s reading rate. One is to practice speed techniques; another is to engage in leisure reading; a third is to increase comprehension and vocabulary levels.
Good college readers are able to maintain sustained concentration, which allows them to process enough text to formulate concepts. They have the ability to regulate concentration thus creating a productive reading experience. Poor readers often have difficulty maintaining focus for extended periods. In fact, many of them have never read a book, so they have problems with concentration as well as experience in mentally retaining information and making connections with extended discourse. Therefore, poor concentration can become a serious block to learning from the written material. However, concentration can improve. If students increase their comprehension and vocabulary levels, develop reading strategies, they will learn to apply techniques that will help monitor and control their reading.
Successful college students have developed metacognitive skills. They are aware of how they think and use this information to create environments that optimize their learning. They have control over the reading/learning process and are flexible thinkers who adapt to different task demands. This reflective component is critical to making progress and to internalizing and using knowledge and skills in subsequent learning situations. Conversely, unsuccessful learners are not aware of how they think and learn and what they do not know; therefore, they are unable to modify behaviors to achieve success. They are also often unaware of various task demands and have few or no learning strategies to employ.
The following link provides examples of how students might use metacognition when reading:
For more information about metacognition, click on the following links:
The Reading/Study Process
Good readers have developed a systematic method to handle study reading: reading expository text with the purpose of making notes and using the notes for future study. The following describes one version of the reading process that students find helpful.
- The Before-Step (Link to Before Step)
This is often the most neglected step of the reading process. Novice students often see reading as a passive process; as a result, the need to prepare themselves to become actively engaged is often neglected. Without proper orientation, novice readers often find their reading unproductive. (Cite Wood phrases)
- The During-Step (Link to During Step)
Becoming prepared for reading is the first step. Once students have set a purpose and created a plan, they are ready to begin reading the material. In this step readers are processing text. They are engaging in a covert dialogue with the author, posing mental questions, using prior knowledge to create links with new knowledge. Also, depending on their purpose, they may also be making notes. The purpose of this step is to identify relevant information, create meaning, and produce a record of information, if necessary, for future study.
- The After-Step (Link to After Step)
This step involves reviewing, organizing, consolidating and applying information in an effort to achieve a level of competency. This process facilitates the movement of information from short-term to long-term memory. Students are actively involved in the learning process. Often the after-step is replaced by cramming, studying in one long intensive period. Although cramming may meet short-term goals, long-term retention of material often does not result.
What are the reading demands in various disciplines?
General reading strategies can be applied to a great variety of text. However, effective college readers adapt their techniques and/or focus to meet discipline specific reading demands. The following links provide information regarding the specific reading demands of various fields.
- Reading Technical Material
- Reading in the Social Sciences
- Reading in the Biological Sciences
- Reading in Foreign Languages
- Reading in Mathematics
- Reading Literature
The following links provides more information about content- area reading:
Are the materials I have selected student friendly?
The Concept of Readability
Since the goal of reading is to provide information to readers that they can comprehend and use, it is important that the material is appropriate for the audience and purpose. One should not think in terms of readability as “dumbing down” text. In fact, we should think in terms of increasing students’ reading abilities so that they can handle college level text. Therefore, text selection is an important consideration for all instructors. Obviously, the first considerations are to select a text that covers the curriculum and one that is designed for freshman or sophomore level students, etc. After that faculty may want to determine if the materials they have selected are “student-friendly.” For example, does a textbook contain a well-organized table of contents, a detailed index and a glossary? The following link provides information on ways to globally assess the readability of text:
Readability formulas were originally developed for K-12 materials; however, a number of research studies have been conduced which validate their use with college texts. There are a number of readability formulas that can be used to calculate the reading level of a text. Most are based upon vocabulary, sentence length, sentence complexity, etc. The formulas do not deal with concept complexity or reader characteristics. If several formulas are applied to one book, a range of scores would be produced. Additionally, the formulas assume that students “read every word,” when if fact good readers read for ideas not words and use prior knowledge and knowledge of text structures to comprehend. As a result formulas, used alone, would not be recommended as a way to determine if a book is appropriate. It is best to use an overview, thinking in terms of general concepts about readability, as presented earlier, and one’s knowledge and experience working with community college students. The formulas could be used as additional information, although they are not necessary. Some formulas are calculated manually, some use graphs and some use computer software.
Readability Formulas — The following link provides more generation information about readability formulas.
The remaining links provide access to some more frequently used readability formulas.
How is reading online different from reading hard copy materials? What can I do to help my students read online materials for my course?
Our views about how to read and the reading strategies that are currently taught need to be reexamined and modified as people read more and more in an online environment. Studies need to be conducted to determine how to best prepare students for reading on the Web. Also, perhaps people who produce extended text for the web may adapt its presentation to make it more “reader friendly” or it may be that the technology drives the format and readers will just have to adapt to fit the technology.
Reading online is different than reading hard copy text in a number of ways. There are many different formats readers will see online. They may download e-books with chapters that look much like standard hard copy chapters or they may see chapters that look much different than hardcopy chapters. The online chapters may be short, a few pages, but they may have many embedded links that take them to a discussion about a specific concept with a new structure. They may see articles with traditional essay formats, or they may see articles with little or no evidence of hard copy texts aids, such as heading, subheadings or even normal paragraphing. How can readers deal with unfamiliar text structures? (Link with format differences.)
Another difference, as previously mentioned, is that unlike hard copy text, some online text may have many embedded links. The presence of links actually runs counter to the traditional concept of reading, following a thought with sustained concentration. How should the linked information be processed? Should readers stop at each link as they encounter them or read the full page and then go back to linked information? (Link with embedded links.)
A third difference between online reading and hard copy reading is the physical equipment that is involved with online reading. Readers must process text via a computer screen which sometimes causes eye strain. Much of the reading that is done on the internet is done in small bites. Reading smaller bits of text does not cause much of a problem as far as eye fatigue. However, when faced with lengthy text how can readers deal with this? (Link with reading on the computer screen.)
A fourth difference focuses on the reader’s behaviors. Readers often read for short bursts processing “snippets” of information rather than processing lengthy text for extended periods of time. This may be because readers are used to reading emails, shopping, chatting, blogging, and surfing. Readers are used to reading quickly and then writing, often not using formal language. As a result, skimming and scanning techniques are often appropriate strategies. However, skimming and scanning are not appropriate when trying to process text deeply for extended periods. Therefore, students should be made aware of how to vary techniques when reading online.
An interesting study was conducted at Ohio State University which indicates that students found it harder to read online than from printed copy. See the following link for the study:
For further information about the reading online, click on the following links:
How can I implement the reading process in my own discipline?
Demonstration of the Reading Process
The process is designed to show students how to read a traditional, expository textbook chapter. This allows for modeling of strategies as well as guided practice with feedback. It would take approximately 30 minutes of class time to work through the steps outlined below.
- The first step for implementing the reading process in your class is to provide a brief demonstration of the Before Step of the Reading Process (Link to Before Step) using a future assignment.
- Second, students perform the Before Step with their next reading assignment. Using their actual assignment should relevant and motivating.
- Next, demonstrate the During Step of the Reading Process (Link to During Step) using a page from their current assignment.
- Then have students read, mark, the next page using the demonstrated strategies.
- Finally, show students how you read, marked, the page they just completed. Have students share how their performance was similar or different from yours, and answer any questions/concerns they may have about the process.
Be aware that students may find new strategies cumbersome or strange; however, assure them that as they become more familiar with the process, their efficiency will improve. Also, let them know that processing text deeply does require some time and mental effort; it is much different from skimming or scanning. Writing in their text or making notes on paper requires students to become thinking readers and provides a record of information for future study. By spending a small amount of class time at the beginning of the semester showing students how to implement a systematic method for reading class materials is worthwhile in the long run. Also, remember if online reading (Link to online reading), fiction or non-fiction (Link to reading literature) pieces or other formats are assigned, you should take a few minutes to demonstrate how to modify the reading process to adapt to variant structures.
Additionally, it is important to continue to use the vocabulary of the reading process and related reading theory throughout the semester. You could refer to the process and other related concepts in lecture, on handouts, on Blackboard discussion questions, etc. Also, students may not continue to use the strategies unless they are required to do on future assignments. Students must know that you will be monitoring their use of reading strategies and that points will be awarded for their application. The goal is to create a system which requires minimal time, on the part of the faculty, for checking use of strategies, but requires students to use the strategies throughout the semester. (See the section below on designing assignments that require independent reading.)
If you are interested in providing students with study strategies, you could also discuss the After Step of the Reading Process. (Link to After Step) When students have finished reading a chapter and/or several chapters and are preparing to organize material for study, you could model how to apply the strategies to their current assignment. Again this process could take about 30 minutes of class time.
You are a reading expert!
Finally, if you think about it, you are an expert in how to read in your own field. You have been a successful student in that field; have much background knowledge, and passion for the subject. So sharing your particular strategies for reading would be very helpful and motivating to students. It is also enlightening for students to learn about any struggles you may have experienced as a novice learner in that field.
How can I design assignments to incorporate independent reading?
There are several ways to design assignments which will require students to do some independent reading. It is assumed that these activities would be listed on the course syllabus and have course points associated with them. Also, checking or collecting materials associated with outside of class reading should precede lecture or discussion of assigned text.
Faculty could create a reading guide for the one or two chapters to show students how to focus their reading on important information. Students would be required to mark their answers in their text. Some students may balk at writing in their books because they feel they will lose money when they try to sell their books. You can refute this argument in two ways. First of the all, as soon students purchase a book, whether they write in it or not, it becomes a used book; therefore, they will only receive reimbursement for a used book. Secondly, their books are their learning tools. They should use “their tools” to their fullest extent to help them comprehend, apply, and master course content. After providing reading guides for the first few chapters, you could explain that they should now have an idea of what to identify in their reading and how to note and reduce the information for study. Remember this system of reading, marking, could apply to any text, chapters, articles, essays, etc.
A quick way to check on their reading is to collect their textbooks, articles, etc. and quickly scan them to determine whether or not students have read the material. This takes about 15 to 20 minutes for a class of 30. While a faculty member checks books, the students can be reading a related article, reviewing a lab manual, editing, reviewing, summarizing lecture notes, etc. Also, the checking process can be random and sporadic. The key is to check throughout the semester. Also, a PAL (Link to PAL program description) could be assigned to do the checking. If a PAL is used, checking could occur with more frequency.
Faculty could create a study guide for each chapter and have students answer the questions and submit them for credit. It is not necessary to spend a great deal of time checking the guides. If you select a few key questions to review closely and skim the rest, it is fairly easy to determine if students have read the chapter. Again, a PAL could be used to check the study guides.
Summary writing is another way for students to demonstrate that they have read the assignment. Faculty can have students summarize a whole piece, a section, or one concept. Also, students could be asked to write a summary which relates two concepts.
A short quiz could be created that is open-ended or scantron-able. Since students would have only read but not studied the material, the quiz questions should be more definitional and broad in nature. To reduce anxiety associated with test taking and demonstrate the power or making notes when reading, students could also be given 5 minutes to review their text marking or outline before taking the quiz. Those that have read will have an advantage since they will have already reduced the information and have some comprehension of concepts.
Students can be asked to write a short paragraph which compares or contrasts material presented in a reading with a video clip or an outside article prior to discussion in the lecture.
An assigned reading can be divided so that groups of students are assigned specific sections to read. They could then be required to create an outline of important concepts and questions they may have about the section. If they are provided with transparencies, their work could be used as a way to discuss the chapter.
Students could be required to create two or three questions with answers based on their reading. These can be collected and used a basis for an initial discussion of the material.
Novels/non-fiction books — Be Aware of Hard Copy and Online Aids
When assigning a novel or non-fiction book avoid selecting a book that has Cliff-Notes or Spark Notes. (www.sparknotes.com) If you decide to use a book that has summaries of chapters, themes, etc., create pre-discussion questions that are not based on materials in commercial notes.
Modification of the Minute Paper**
Pose a question or two taken from an assigned reading, and have students write a short response. PALs might be able to review the responses with direction from an instructor.
Students write a paragraph which refutes an assigned reading. Since the focus of this exercise is to determine if students have read, their responses can be reviewed quickly by focusing on key phrases.
* A technique that was created by Elliot Aronson and his students at the University of Texas and the University of California in the 1970’s.
**From Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for Faculty. K. Patricia Cross and Thomas A. Angelo. Ann Arbor, MI: National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, 1988.
How can I design assessments which require some independent reading?
Another way to motivate students to complete their reading assignments is to create assessments which are, in part, based upon material that will not be discussed in the lecture. When doing this, it is important to select material that you know students are capable of comprehending independently. The reading could present additional materials dealing with a previously discussed concept. It could be a new, unrelated but easily understood extension of a discussed concept. A second point to keep in mind is to be sure that students know how to handle the reading. If the format is similar to previous material and you have already addressed reading strategies, then that is fine.
On your own readings
Instructors could identify articles or sections of chapters that will not be discussed in class. You can explain that they will be expected to read the material and that one or several questions will appear on an assessment based upon the material. Depending on the sophistication of your students you can create questions that only literal or a combination of literal and inferential. If you want to provide some focus for the reading you can give students some general ideas without specifically identifying the material. One of the purposes of these exercises is to help students learn how to identify and comprehend important information independently. They are often required to do this on pre-employment tests and as a part of admissions requirements for colleges within universities.
Inclusion of short-readings
Instructors can include paragraphs or brief articles that would require students to read and respond to short-answer essay questions or objective questions. Again this would provide practice reading and responding to text independently.
What should I do if I recognize that a student is having difficulty handing reading assignments in my course?
- Students could take an appropriate Collegiate Skills course. Collegiate Skills Department offerings include prerequisite courses that develop reading skills – vocabulary, comprehension, speed, and learning strategies. Theses courses provide the opportunity for students to enhance their reading skills so that they will feel more comfortable and more prepared to handle college level reading tasks. Specifically, Collegiate Skills COLLS 050 and COLLS 053 are prerequisite courses. Also, if students are reading at the college-level but are interested in improving their skills, they should consider enrolling in Collegiate Skills COLLS 101 or COLLS 130.
- If a student has taken a course and they are still challenged, you can refer them to the instructional reading modules that are embedded in the website. These modules provide an explanation/demonstration of a skill and some provide practice exercises. The modules can be accessed by clicking on the embedded links. At the end of this website, a number of additional reading-related links are provided.
- Students can also be referred to a faculty facilitator. The faculty facilitators in the Learning Assistance Center can provide both an informal and formal assessment and suggested interventions based on assessments. Many of the faculty facilitators teach or have taught Collegiate Skills courses so they are very knowledgeable about the field of reading and the reading/ study skills courses.
- Students can also be referred to counseling. Counselors can discuss placement or ACT/SAT scores, examine transcripts, listen to what students have observed based upon their experiences reading independently, and make recommendations about future class selections.
Additional Reading-Related Links